When an application performs DNS lookup as part of its operations on Linux, it can leverage both /etc/hosts and /etc/resolv.conf configuration files to resolve DNS names. How these configuration files are used for DNS lookup can vary among different applications, complicating system administration. But Linux libc library and the GNU C Library (glibc) provides a clean solution to this problem, by defining DNS lookup orders with Name Service Switch (NSS). NSS defines a set of databases and their lookup order in NSS configuration file (/etc/nsswitch.conf in Linux). Applications built with those libraries will then perform DNS lookups in a consistent manner.
In /etc/nsswitch.conf, the database for DNS lookup is called "hosts". For example:
hosts: files dns
The above means that DNS lookup refers to /etc/hosts first, and then DNS servers specified in /etc/resolv.conf
gethostbyname() in glibc will follow the DNS lookup order specified in /etc/nsswitch.conf. So do other programs like wget and curl.
Note that DNS lookup tools such as nslookup/dig which are made to query DNS servers, will ignore /etc/nsswitch.conf, and always refer to DNS servers in /etc/resolv.conf
Subscribe to Xmodulo
Do you want to receive Linux FAQs, detailed tutorials and tips published at Xmodulo? Enter your email address below, and we will deliver our Linux posts straight to your email box, for free. Delivery powered by Google Feedburner.
Did you find this tutorial helpful? Then please be generous and support Xmodulo!
Latest posts by Dan Nanni (see all)
- How to install Suricata intrusion detection system on Linux - September 3, 2015
- How to switch from NetworkManager to systemd-networkd on Linux - August 31, 2015
- How to set up a system status page of your infrastructure - August 25, 2015