How to convert rows into space-delimited line and vice versa

As part of text-file batching processing job, if you would like to convert rows into a space-delimited line, or replace spaces with line break (or newline), you can use command line utilities such as tr and awk. The tr command can perform simple character translation or deletion on input text file, while the awk utility can perform more powerful pattern scanning and processing on input file. So these tools can be quite useful in any kind of shell scripts.

To convert rows into a space-delimited line:

$ cat intput.txt
$ cat input.txt | tr "\n" " "
apple mango watermelon orange pineapple kiwi

To convert spaces to line break (newline):

$ cat intput2.txt
january february march april may
sed -e 's/\s\+/\n/g' input2.txt

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Dan Nanni is the founder and also a regular contributor of He is a Linux/FOSS enthusiast who loves to get his hands dirty with his Linux box. He likes to procrastinate when he is supposed to be busy and productive. When he is otherwise free, he likes to watch movies and shop for the coolest gadgets.

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